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School of Geography

Graham Clarke Prof Graham Clarke

Contact details

School of Geography
University of Leeds
University Road
Leeds LS2 9JT   UK


+44 (0) 113 34 33323

Student hours:

Work in progress

Current projects

  1. Geography and obesity (with Kim Edwards, Lorna Taylor, Andy Hill, Janet Cade)
  2. Sustainable transport of aggregates (with Chengchao Zuo, Mark Birkin and British Geological Survey) 
  3. Geography of retail change and retail location models (with Mark Birkin, Martin Clarke)
  4. Geography of food miles (with Rebecca Hughes, Mark Birkin)
  5. Retail models in the public sector (with Hamzah Khawaldah, Mark Birkin)
  6. The changing discount retail food market (with Chris Thompson, Martin Clarke and John Stillwell)
  7. The globalisation of retailing in Thailand (with Pakorn Meksangsouy, Paul Waley)
  8. The geography of hospitalisation and GP visits (with Holly Shulman and Mark Birkin)
  9. Applied microsimulation (with Dimitris Ballas, Karyn Morrissey, Mel Tomintz)
  10. Microsimulation and geodemographics (with Mark Birkin)

Education, GIS And models

The impacts of the new market reforms in education, especially spatial variations in parental choice; use of (and potential for) GIS and models in education planning; geographical variations in examination performance; value-added performance indicators

Retail location planning

The use of GIS and models in store location research (and business generally); case studies include financial services, petrol stations, restaurants, car market, high street retailers, large format retailers; theoretical extensions to spatial interaction models; extensions to spatial interaction models based on applied research; cost-benefits of GIS and models in retailing; implications for store location research of new forms of distribution channel (internet, ATMs, home delivery etc); models of optimisation; models of mergers and acquisitions.

Retail saturation and provision

Research which examines the notion of retail saturation by analysing spatial variations in provision rates; case studies include UK and US grocery markets - now working on other European markets in grocery retailing and financial services; also rise of the discount sector and possible saturation in the future.


This is a relatively new technique in geography aimed at modelling the interdependencies between household attributes. This allows the estimation of a wide range of variables for every household in the study: age, sex, employment type, ethnicity, etc. From these distributions income can usually be estimated. This, in turn, allows the modelling of household interactions (can be integrated with spatial interaction models) for journies to work, school, GP, hospital, shops etc. In addition to income new household variables can also be calculated, such as household tax, family allowance, rates, rents, benefits etc. Major applications include:

  • Small-area estimations of the impact of major job loss/gains
  • Estimation of the geography of tax and benefits: allows the impacts of social policy change to be estimated
  • More powerful estimations of income and wealth (esp in US)

Each of these application areas are on-going projects.

Geography and health

Interest in any area of health inequalities. In particular, spatial clustering of diseases; variations in hospital referral rates (and hence hospitalisation rates themselves); variations in the take-up of breastfeeding (current Dept of health project); health and deprivation; geography (or spatial impacts) of market reforms in health care; use of GIS and models in health care planning.


The geography of model-based performance indicators which measure how well served residents are for various types of jobs and services. Also, how well facilities serve their catchment areas (planned catchment areas and real catchment areas); other methodologies for estimating urban and rural deprivation.

Previous projects

  • ESRC 2001 Census Development Programme (with S. Alvanides & A.J. Bailey) 1999-2000
  • Department of Health (1 Nov 1998 to 31 October 2001) 'Reducing inequalities in health by increasing breasfeeding uptake'
  • Department of Health 1998
  • British Council 1996
  • Yorkshire Water 'Small area estimation of water consumption' (with Professor A.T. McDonald) 1995-96 (2nd Phase)
  • Eurodirect 1993
  • Association of Geographic Information 1993
  • University - 'CPE strategy marketing' (with Dr J.C.H. Stillwell) 1993
  • Politecnico di Torino 1992-94
  • University - 'European marketing survey' 1992
  • ESRC 'Applied GIS Seminar Series' 1992-93
  • Yorkshire Water 'Small Area estimation of water consumption' (with Professor A.T. McDonald) 1991-95

Grants awarded

Previous grants

Research councils

  • £8,250 E.S.R.C. - 'Applied GIS Seminar Series' 1992-93
  • £40,000 E.S.R.C (with prof Openshaw) 'Optimal zones for the 2001 census' 1999-2000
  • £24,000 E.S.R.C/Sainsbury (with Prof N. Wrigley, Southampton) 'Food Deserts' 2000-2002
  • £48,000 M.R.C. (with Janet Cade, Joan Ransley, £500000), Diet and Nutrition Survey 2006-2008

Other government grants

  • £750 British Council 'Building links with USS, Malaysia' 1996
  • £3,500 Department of Health 'GIS and breastfeeding' 1998-2001
  • £32,000 Home Office (with L.See) 'Families of basic crime units' 1999-2000
  • £36,000 TEAGASC (Eire) 'A microsimulation model of rural Ireland' 2000-2001 
  • £2,750 Home Office (with L.See) 'Extensions of family groups' 2001
  • £10,000 Leeds Crime Reduction partnership 'Crime in Leeds' 2001
  • £15,000 Doncaster Social Services 'A GIS for services for the elderly' 2001
  • £8,500 Derbyshire Police (with L.See, A.Evans) 'Internal resourcing models for Derbyshire' 2001
  • £15,000 Yorkshire Police (with Mark Birkin) 'Visual audits across West Yorkshire' 2002
  • £8,500 West Yorkshire Fire Service 'Monitoring the geography of arson in Leeds' 2004-5
  • £10,000 Leeds Crime Reduction partnership 'Crime in Leeds' 2004
  • £75,000 Joseph Rowntree Foundation (with Prof Dorling) 'SIMYORK & SIMBRITAIN' 2001-2002

Private sector

  • £58,000 Yorkshire Water - 'Small area estimation of water consumption' (with prof. MacDonald) 1991-5 (1st phase)
  • £1,500 Association of Geographic Information 1993 'Applied GIS seminars'
  • £6,500 Politecnico di Torino 1992-94 'Performance indicator modelling'
  • £50,000 Yorkshire Water - 'Small area estimation of water consumption' (with prof. MacDonald) 1995-6 (2nd phase)
  • £2,000 Fulcrum TV (with L.See) 'Crime pattern league table analysis' 2000
  • £215,000 British Telecom (with D.Dorling) 'SIMYORK & SIMBRITAIN and their potential for the geography of telecommunications' 2001-2003
  • £25,000 Secta (with M.Birkin) 'Health care models for Leeds' 2001-2002
  • £6,000 Yorkshire TV (with M.Birkin) 'Impact of YTV in the region' 2002v £65000 David Simmonds Consultancy 'Land-use transport micro models' 2004-2005 

Grants for distance learning courses in GIS

  • £96,000 EU European Social Fund 'Distance Learning & Training for SMEs' 1999-2000
  • £50,0000 eUniversity for development of on-line masters in GIS course 2003-2005

Future research

  • Small-area population forecasting. This project (ESRC/GMAP studentship) aims to produce small-area population and economic forecasts at the postal sector level. The end product will be commercially available.
  • Microsimulation model of cities: major research proposal to build highly disaggreagted household distributions and then to model individual interactions across the city.
  • The geography of E-Commerce
  • The restructuring of motor retail distribution