## Introduction

- Information about Andy Turner's research interest in geomorphometrics.
- Contents:

## Topic Outline

- This topic involves describing what geomorphometrics are and how they can be used in geographical modelling.
- I think of geomorphometrics as measures of the geometry, topography, shape or form of Earth's physical horizons and their change over time.
- In other words, geomorphometrics are measures of the state and change in surface geometry of the Earth's physical horizons.
- They are topographic measures that can be used in terrain analysis and geographical modelling.
- Fundamentally they are geographical variables.
- Two example geomorphometrics might be measures of slope and aspect
- In general, slope is the gradient and aspect is the angle relative to some axis (usually the horizontal plane) over a given region.
- At first this may appear to be a clear and consise definition of slope and aspect, however, there is much to consider
- How for instance do we define horizontal?
- What are the effects of shape and size of the region on the metric?
- At what resolutions are the measures to be taken?

- Despite considerations making metrics of slope and aspect seem more complex, these measures are relatively simple compared with other metrics!

- To compliment this work I delivered part of the GEOG5060 GIS and Environment Module in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008

## My Research

- During and since the DesertLinks project I have been developing Java software for handling raster data and generating geomorphometrics
- The latest project I have been involved with on this topic is the UKBuildingGeometry project
- I have tried to encourage numerous colleagues to use geomorphometrics in their studies and processed much data for them
- I should link to some of the pretty pictures and provide more details of this in due course...

- I have produced geomorphometrics for a study of the surface of Mars which I hope to get back to at some stage...
- In 2004 I began to draft an article about Developing and Using Geomorphometrics

## References and Reading

- UKBuildingGeometry
- Albani M., Klinkenberg B., Andison D.W., Kimmins J.P. (2004)
The choice of window size in approximating topographic surfaces from Digital Elevation Models.
International Journal of Geographical Informaiton Science Vol. 18, No. 6, September,
pages 577-593. DOI: 10.1080/13658810410001701987
- - "Presents a general analytical method to estimate the propagation of elevation errors to the principal derived topographic variables (slope, aspect and surface curvatures) as calculated with the quadratic approximation method with variable evaluation window size of Wood (1996). It expands the work of Florinsky (1998b) to incorporate evaluation windows of sizes larger than 3x3, and considers spatially correlated elevation error." (Taken form the conclusion) Like the paper a lot! It has an excellent conclusion and is well referenced. Much of the referenced work should be looked at for GEOG5060.

- Wood, J. D. (1996) The geomorphological characterisation of Digital Elevation Models. PhD thesis, University of Leicester. (Bibliography)
- Aguilar J.A.P, Perez J.M.R., GIS (Idrisi) Analysis of Digital Elevation Models for the Extraction of Drainage Basin Geomorphometric Properties.
- Donker, N. H. W., 1992: Automatic extraction of catchment hydrologic properties from digital elevation data. ITC Journal 3, 257-265.
- Gardner, T. W., Connors Sasowshy, K. and Day, R. L., 1990: Automated extraction of geomorphometric properties from digital elevation data. Z. Geomorph. N. F. 80, 57-68.
- Garg, P.K. and Harrison, A. R., 1990: Quantitative representation of land-surface morphology from digital elevation models. In: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on spatial data handling. Vol. 1, Zurich, 273-282.
- Evans I.S. (1972) General Geomorphometry, derivatives of altitude, and descriptive statistics. In Chorley R.J. (ed.) Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology. Mathuen & co ltd 17-92.
- Frauenfelder R., Schneider B. (2002) Geomorphometric modelling of rock Glaciers, an extended abstract
- Kokkas N.A., Miliaresis G.Ch. (2004) Geomorphometric mapping of Grand Canyon from the 1-degree USGS DEMs
- Korup O. (2003) Geomorphometric Characteristics of New Zealand landslide dams. Engineering Geology 73.1 May 2004 pp13-35
- Korup O. (2004) Geomorphic Hazard Assessmen of landslide dams in South Westland New Zealand: Fundamental Problems and approaches. Geomorphology 66.2 March 2005 pp167-188
- Horsch B. (2003) Modelling the spatial distribution of montane and subalpine forests in the central alps using digital elevation models. Ecological modelling 168.3 October 2003 pp267-282.
- Mark D. (1975) Geomorphometric parameters, a review and evaluation. Geographiska Annaler 57A 1461-1467.
- Pike R. (1995) Geomorphometry-process, practice and prospects. Zeitschrift. Geomorphologie N.F. Suppl. Bd 101:221-238
- Pike R.J. (1998) Web Resources Compiled For Terrain Modeling (http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/97260e.html).
- Pike R.J. (2002) A Bibliography of Terrain Modelling (Geomorphometry), the Quantitative Representation of Topography – Supplement 4.0 USGS Open File Report 02-465. (http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of02-465/of02-465.pdf)
- Strahler, A. N., 1954: Quantitative geomorphology of erosional landscapes. 19th Intern. Geol. Cong., Algiers, 341-354.
- Fortey R (2004) The Earth: An Intimate History. Knopf/Random House. ISBN: 0375406263

## Acknowledgements

- Thank you to those who have contributed to this topic and the information content linked from this page.
- I look forward to our on-going collaboration.
- In particular thanks to those involved with GEOG5060 in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008

- Thank you to those who have contributed to this topic and the information content linked from this page.

## Validation and Metadata

- Version 0.1.0 of this page published on 2010-09-13.
- Page based on Andy Turner's Geomorphometrics HTML 4.01 Web Page
- Page hosted on the School of Geography webserver at the University of Leeds.
- Copyright: Andy Turner, University of Leeds.