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School of Geography

Lawrence Akanyang Lawrence Akanyang

Contact details

School of Geography
University of Leeds
University Road
Leeds LS2 9JT   UK



Project title

Factors influencing human wildlife resource conflicts in Kalahari North, Botswana: The use of GIS and GPS to analyse livestock-wildlife interactions.

Project Overview

About 1.8 million people in Botswana depend on pastoral agriculture as their income source (FAO 2006). Over the last century, Botswana’s rangelands have shifted intensively from wildlife to a livestock-dominated system (Perkins, Stuart-Hill et al. 2002). Furthermore, the drilling of boreholes in the early last century (Perkins and Thomas 1993) has increased the livestock and human populations in the Kalahari ecosystem(Arntzen, Chanda et al. 1998) and as a results pushing the ecosystem into resource use pressure and Human Wildlife Resource conflicts (HWRC).

The continued livestock expansion in critical wildlife area, will have an impact on the remaining Kalahari wildlife populations (Perkins, Stuart –Hill et al., 2002). Therefore there is need to have an integrated ecological and socio-economic development that strikes a sustainable balance between livestock and wildlife based economies (Perkins, Stuart-Hill et al. 2002). While much is known about wildlife movements, comparatively little is known about how free-ranging cattle in Kalahari utilise the rangelands during different times of the year. Also the main factors leading to HWRC conflicts are not certainly known.

Therefore this study will integrate Social survey (Chanda, Totolo et al. 2003) to capture people perceptions on HWRC and natural resource availability (wildlife and livestock distribution, forage availability) during dry and wet seasons in Kalahari, Botswana in order to determine major factors causing HWRC and potential mitigation measures. The study will use GPS tracking devices on cattle (Hulbert and French 2001), spoor counts (Verlinden, Perkins et al. 1998, Moleele and Mainah 2003), and community participation in order to map the livestock distribution along the grazing gradient. Spoor counts and observations will also be used to map out the wildlife distribution in relation to the cattle grazing gradient from the water points/villages. Vegetation survey along a grazing gradient will also be conducted to evaluate and map out the spatial distribution of forage availability, so as to link it with the livestock and wildlife distributions. The study will apply spatial information modelling techniques including remote sensing; Geographical Information Systems and GPS together with field studies.

Project Objectives

  1. To determine and map out forage resources (Stocking rate and carrying capacity), livestock and indigenous wildlife distribution (dry and wet season) in relation to each other with distance from the livestock watering points/settlements/cattle posts in the communal grazing area and wildlife management areas.
  2. To determine the trends in cattle, indigenous wildlife numbers, human populations and agricultural activities in Kalahari from the past to present.
  3. To establish different kinds of natural hazards that could contributes towards HWRC in Kalahari.
    1. Establish how indigenous wildlife and cattle policies contribute towards HWRC Kalahari rangelands.
    2. To Explore the socioeconomic, environmental and community characteristics that are associated with livestock and indigenous wildlife management.
    3. To evaluate optimal, minimum human wildlife resource conflict solutions which will optimise economic return from livestock grazing while maintaining the ecological integrity of the area and its indigenous wildlife.



Commonwealth Scholarships Commission (CSC) (UK) 2013.

Research Publications

  • J Perkins, M Reed, L Akanyang, J. Atlhopheng, R. Chanda, L. Magole, W. Mphinyane, K. Mulale, R. Sebego, L. Fleskens, B. Irvine, and M. Kirky (2011). Making land management more sustainable: Experience implementing a new methodological framework in Botswana. Land Degradation & development. 24 (5) 463-477.
  • Tshireletso, K. and Akanyang, L., (2011). Use of global positioning system and geographic information systems technology in animal and range resources management. Uniswa Journal of Agriculture 15 (1) 99 – 103.
  • Omphile, U.J., Aganga, A. A., Akanyang, L. and Ramotlopi, P. (2010). An evaluation of the foraging strategies of goats in kweneng Districts, Botswana. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences 6: 115 – 122.


Sustainable Agriculture Bursary Fund 2013


  • 2004-2007 - Master’s Degree in Environmental Science: University of Botswana (Range Management, Geographic information Systems (GIS)
  • 1995-1998 - BSc Degree in Forestry Management. Colorado State University (CSU) -United States of America (USA)
  • 1993 – 1995 - BSc General, University of Botswana (UB)
  • January to July 1993: PESC (Pre-entry Science Course), University of Botswana (UB),


  • 2005 to Date: Lecturer at Botswana College of Agriculture (BCA)
  • 2005 – 2004: Teaching Assistant (University of Botswana – Department of environmental Science.
  • 2003 – 2003: Fulltime Researcher (University of Botswana – Department of environmental Science
  • 1999 -2002: - Project Manager at Forestry Association of Botswana