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School of Geography

Ho Wen Lo Ho Wen Lo

Contact details

Room 10.11
School of Geography
University of Leeds
University Road
Leeds LS2 9JT   UK



Project title

Evaluating secondary effects of Natural Flood Management (NFM) projects in upland environments.

Project overview

The United Kingdom has recently undergone a paradigm shift in its approach to flood management – Natural Flood Management (NFM) has been promoted to supplement existing, more conventional ‘hard engineering’ approaches. Most existing studies have focused on evaluating the effectiveness of NFM schemes in reducing flood risks. However, this is inadequate. For a full cost-benefit analysis, it is crucial to consider the secondary effects of NFM as well.

The installation of woody dams is a common NFM technique. In-stream geomorphological processes will be influenced, causing changes in patterns of erosion and deposition. Subsequently, this will have an effect on the biological communities living near the river bed. In addition, woody dams may alter interactions between groundwater and surface water. This has implications for aquifer recharge and biogeochemical cycling.

This research project aims to understand how NFM techniques affect the ecological and geomorphological functioning of river systems. Before implementing NFM plans elsewhere, it is important to make sure that they can provide a wide range of benefits and that the adverse effects associated with them are manageable.


To evaluate the sustainability of NFM techniques based on their secondary effects


  • To quantify geomorphological responses to woody dams
  • To examine the effects of wood-induced features on hyporheic exchange
  • To examine the effects of woody dams on benthic biological communities
  • To evaluate secondary responses to a range of NFM projects implemented within Yorkshire



Short Curriculum Vitae


BSocSc Geography (First Class Honours), University of Hong Kong


Stewart Richards Memorial Prize for Best U.K. Field Trip Performance (2016 – 2017)